As climate change worsens wildfires have become increasingly common. The impact on wildlife is often overlooked.

Officials have called 2023 the worst year on record for wildfires in Canada.

In addition to destroying millions of hectares of forests, wildfires can have significant impacts on wildlife and their habitats. The effects of a forest fire on wildlife can vary depending on the intensity, severity, and frequency of the fire, as well as the specific species and ecosystems involved.

Canada’s wildfires fuelled by climate change, say scientists

Here are some ways in which forest fires negatively impact wildlife:

Direct mortality

Wild animals have evolved to sense danger, including fires. In many cases, they know what to do to keep themselves and their families safe. Some animals like bears, ungulates, coyotes and cougars will flee and travel large distances. Other smaller animals will try to tough out the blaze, climbing trees, hiding under logs and rocks or burying themselves in the soil.

But despite their best efforts to find safety, many wild animals will be killed directly by the smoke, flames, or heat of a wildfire. This is especially true for slower-moving species including older animals, young animals, injured animals, snakes, lizards, frogs, nesting birds, porcupines and small ground-dwelling mammals like squirrels, rabbits, voles, and mice.

Animals who are not killed directly from wildfire can suffer from ongoing risks and health problems. For example, research suggests that forest fires can weaken an animal’s immune system, making them more susceptible to disease and infections (Albery et al., 2021). Sanderfoot et al. (2021) argues smoke inhalation can lead to carbon monoxide poisoning, respiratory distress, neurological impairment and other acute and chronic health conditions in wildlife.

Habitat destruction and loss of food sources

Forest fires can destroy or severely damage the habitats of many wildlife species. For animals that rely on vegetation for food, a forest fire can destroy their food sources. This can lead to food shortages and malnutrition, and create competition in new areas with other wildlife.

The loss of habitat may also drive wildlife to nearby urban environments, increasing their proximity to humans. It’s important to be tolerant to these new visitors and extend compassion towards all wild animals in our communities, especially after wildfires. To help prevent wildlife encounters, please secure attractants including garbage, fallen fruit, compost, and other wildlife attractants.

Predator-prey dynamics

Forest fires can disrupt predator-prey dynamics. Predators may take advantage of the confusion and disorientation caused by fires to catch prey more easily. On the other hand, some prey species may be able to escape predators due to the chaos caused by the fire.

Loss of shelter and nesting sites

Many animals rely on specific features of the landscape, such as fallen logs, snags (standing dead trees), and dense vegetation for shelter and nesting. Forest fires can destroy these features, affecting breeding success and their overall population.

Soil and water quality

The increased runoff and erosion that can occur after a fire can negatively impact water quality in nearby rivers and streams, affecting aquatic ecosystems and the animals that depend on them such as salmon.

Long-term effects

The recovery process after a fire can take years, even decades. During this time, wildlife populations and individuals may struggle to rebound as they wait for the ecosystem to restore itself.

While forest fires can have negative impacts, it’s worth noting they are also a natural part of many ecosystems. Some species including ungulates have evolved to thrive in post-fire environments, and certain plants even depend on fire to release their seeds and stimulate growth. In some cases, fire can promote habitat diversity and maintain ecosystem health.

However, with the increasing frequency and intensity of wildfires due to factors like climate change, combined with continuous pressures of human activities and development, the overall balance of our forests is now completely disrupted.


  • Albery, G. F., Turilli, I., Joseph, M. B., Foley, J., Frere, C. H., & Bansal, S. (2021) From flames to inflammation: How wildfires affect patterns of wildlife disease – fire ecology. Springer Open. https://fireecology.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s42408-021-00113-4
  • Fonseca, F. (2021). How wildfires impact wildlife and their habitats. PBS. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/science/explainer-how-wildfires-impact-wildlife-their-habitat
  • Sanderfoot, O.V., Bassing, S.B., Brusa, J.L., Emmet, R.L., Gillman, S.J., Swift, K. & Gardner, B. (2021). A review of the effects of wildfire smoke on the health and behavior of wildlife. Environmental Research Letters. 16. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/ac30f6
  • Streeter, S. (2021, December 3). Wild animals and wildfires. Faunalytics. https://faunalytics.org/wildlife-and-wildfires

Original source: https://all-creatures.org/